By Carolyn D Berdanier
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Extra info for Advanced nutrition
They either turn on the synthesis of the messenger RNA for PEPCK or turn it off. What is also unique is the fact that only liver and kidney cells translate this message into active enzyme protein, which catalyzes PEP formation. Other cells and tissues have the code for PEPCK in their nuclear DNA but do not synthesize the enzyme. Instead, these cell types synthesize the enzyme that catalyzes glycerol synthesis. In effect then, only the kidney and liver have an active gluconeogenic process. The next few steps in gluconeogenesis are identical to those of glycolysis but are in the reverse direction.
The malate–aspartate shuttle has rate-controlling properties with respect to gluconeogenesis, while the malate–citrate shuttle is important to lipogenesis. Once 1,3-bisphosphate glycerate is formed, it is converted to 3-phosphoglycerate with the formation of 1 ATP. The 3-phosphoglycerate then goes to 2-phosphoglycerate and then to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). These are all bidirectional reactions that are also used in gluconeogenesis. The PEP is dephosphorylated to pyruvate with the formation of another ATP.
These desaturases prefer substrates with a double bond in the ω6 position but will also act on ω3 fatty acid bonds and on saturated fatty acids. Desaturation of de novo synthesized stearic acid to form oleic acid results in the formation of a double bond at the ω9 position. This is the first committed step of this desaturation–elongation reaction sequence. Oleic acid can also be formed by the desaturation and elongation of palmitic acid. Fatty acid desaturation can be followed by elongation and repeated such that a variety of monoand polyunsaturated fatty acids can be formed.