By Xiuli Wang
The position of traditional fuel in assembly the realm strength call for has been expanding due to its abundance, versatility, and fresh burning nature. for this reason, new fuel exploration, box improvement, and construction actions are below approach. this is often very true in areas the place average gasoline used to be (until lately) labelled as 'stranded'. simply because a good portion of usual gasoline reserves world-wide can be found throughout our bodies of water, fuel transportation turns into a topic. we're facing many precise matters and dealing with many demanding situations within the whole 'food chain' (upstream to midstream and downstream) of usual gasoline engineering. This necessitates a bridge of the know-how gaps in a couple of very important components: the original new applied sciences akin to diverse interpretation of 3-D seismic in normal gasoline exploration; the categorical specifications in gasoline good drilling; the necessity for the hydraulically fracturing of excessive permeability fuel good to circumvent the wear yet most significantly to lessen turbulence because of excessive good deliverability; traditional fuel sea-going transportation corresponding to liquefied ordinary fuel (LNG) and compressed traditional fuel (CNG); gasoline conversion and garage; and, replacement and competing strength resources. All of those new concerns and demanding situations haven't been addressed intensive in any current books. one more reason why we placed this publication jointly relies on our observations of younger execs and graduate scholars. With the ability of present computing know-how, many businesses are supplying diversified software program to unravel engineering difficulties. Many younger engineers and scholars are sturdy at working courses and plotting appealing graphs with out understanding what the numbers and figures suggest. by some means humans have misplaced their primary talents to take on difficulties with out utilizing a working laptop or computer. the following, in addition to addressing the complex engineering matters with regards to traditional gasoline, we additionally supply equations besides examples and exact calculation systems of basic chemical and petroleum engineering difficulties. This booklet can function a reference e-book for all engineers within the strength enterprise in addition to a textbook for college students in petroleum and chemical engineering curricula and within the education departments of a big crew of businesses.
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Extra resources for Advanced Natural Gas Engineering
1974. Two-phase flow in pipes. Intercomp Course, The Hague. , D. G. C. Alden. 1948. Natural gasoline and the volatile hydrocarbons. NGAA, Tulsa, OK. , R. B. Burrows. 1954. Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure. Trans. AIME 201: 264–272. E. I. Stiel. 1958. The viscosity of non-polar gas mixtures at moderate and high pressures. AICHE J. 4: 430–6. R. 1965. Computer routine treats gas viscosity as a variable. Oil & Gas J. (August): 141. A. B. Robinson. 1974. Computer calculations of natural gas compressibility factors using the Standing and Katz correlation.
01MWg . 22) This correlation is quite accurate for typical natural gas mixtures with low nonhydrocarbon content. Here temperature (T) is in R, the density (rg) is in gm/cm3 (calculated at the pressure and temperature of the system), which can be predicted by using Kay’s method (1936), and the resulting viscosity is expressed in centipoises (cp). Experimental viscosity data used to develop this correlation were presented for temperatures from 100 to 340°F and pressures from 100 to 8,000 psia. Other correlations to calculate gas viscosity include Dempsey (1965) and Dean and Stiel (1958).
Then, from Eq. 34 ft 3 . 4, 000 OPTION 2—Obtain ppc and Tpc from gas specific gravity. 94. 65. From Figure 1–9, ppc = 670 psi and Tpc = 375 R, which compare with 671 psi and 378 R calculated above. OPTION 3—Use published correlation to calculate ppc and Tpc , which will be discussed in a later section of this chapter. Presence of Nonhydrocarbon Gases It is worth noting that the well known graph in Figure 1–8 was constructed for only hydrocarbon gas mixtures. In the presence of large amounts of nonhydrocarbon gases, the gas deviation factor must be adjusted.