By David Nutt & Liam J. Nestor & Liam Nestor
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Extra resources for Addiction
Drugs were scored out of 100 points, and the criteria were weighted to indicate their relative importance. The research reported that the most harmful drugs to users were heroin and crack cocaine whereas the most harmful to others was alcohol. 7). 4 Deaths attributable to alcohol higher in men globally. Alcohol-attributable deaths as a proportion of all deaths by sex and WHO region in 2004. AFR=African region. 36 AMR=American region. EMR=eastern Mediterranean region. EUR=European region. SEAR=South East Asian region.
4 Memory Substance addiction is a form of long-term memory—particularly for the stimuli associated with the effects of the substance. This issue of conditioned substance use memories is dealt with in Chapter 4. 5 Wanting Substance-induced rewards that a person likes are rewards that the person wants. With repeated and excessive substance use comes an adaptive dampening down of the initial appetitive effects. It is at this point that the development of ‘wanting’, at the expense of pleasure and ‘liking’, begins to emerge.
In healthy individuals, there is increased activation in the OFC during actual decision-making for rewards and the evaluation of reward outcomes. The OFC is also involved in the attribution of salience to reinforcing stimuli. e. there is increased incentive salience for substance rewards). The enhanced motivation to procure substances becomes a hallmark of addiction. e. stimuli associated with the substance). Substance abusers show hyperactivity in the OFC during cue-induced craving. During protracted withdrawal, substance abusers demonstrate hypoactivity in the OFC.