By Jeffrey Heath
It is a complete description of Tamashek Tuareg spoken in Mali. The types coated during this quantity are these of Tamashek within the slim feel, aside from Tawellemett yet together with the opposite Malian kinds (Goundam, Timbuktu, Gao, Ansongo, Kidal, and the Gourma quarter south of the Niger River together with Gosi and the outskirts of Hombori).
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Tamashek Tuareg
5 "Root" Consonant Extraction Conventions for d and t d a) for word-families that have at least one form with phonetic [d], Example: Vdf 'seize, hold' because of VblN udaf. b) for word-families where the relevant consonant occurs only in [tX] clusters (where X is a voiceless obstruent), so at least arguably the [t] is a /d/ devoiced by a CCcluster voicing assimilation rule. t c) for word-families with [t] in at least one form where it is ungeminated, and either prevocalic or before a voiced consonant.
Dependencies Not Requiring Adjacency X Y' modification in Y' Future particle complementizer verb verb Short Imperfective Short Imperfective The cases in (9) involve either a Future particle or a particular type of complementizer, plus an inflected "Short Imperfective" form. The latter cannot be used clause-initially with its usual subject pronominal inflections. However, the short imperfective is related to the positive imperative (which has no morphological connection to the prohibitive). The positive imperative is clause-initial (hence is preceded by no "X" element), and it lacks the usual subject pronominals.
B), we get s when clustered with preceding n. When the sibilant is geminated (LoImpfP), we get zz varying with ss. The VblN e-naizz seems to have consistent zz. The VblN t-e-naesse 'pardon(ing)' has ss in spite of gemination, but zz varies with ss in the ablaut PI. c) the sibilant is always geminated in the Sg (unaccented ezz, ess, Ansongo Gourma accented ess). The PI, if formed by simple suffixation, retains this geminate (ess-asn, ezz-asn). However, I also recorded a sibilant 3. e. Sg ezz but PI es-αη with ungeminated s (and full α suggesting contraction from /esi-aen/, cf.