By Hanan Frenk
Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the foremost issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. professionals akin to the medical professional normal of the us and the Royal university of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This ebook is a critique of the nicotine dependancy speculation, in keeping with a severe overview of the learn literature that purports to turn out that nicotine is as addictive drug. The evaluation is predicated on a re-evaluation of greater than seven hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental experiences, results of `nicotine alternative therapies', and lots of different correct assets. This assessment concludes that on current facts, there's each cause to reject the commonly accredited thought that nicotine has a huge position in cigarette smoking. A severe exam of the standards for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met via nicotine, and that it really is more likely that nicotine in reality limits really than enables smoking.
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Additional resources for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors)
The only place in the definition where a causal relationship between the drug and the behavior is stated is the requirement that the drug should be capable of directly reinforcing behavior, which presumably would lead to continued use. Consequently, testing the nicotine addiction hypothesis essentially reduces to testing whether nicotine is reinforcing. It is not surprising, therefore, that a huge number of studies have attempted to establish the reinforcing properties of nicotine in animals and humans.
Addiction, compulsion, and habit 23 development has been reflected in the evolvement of the 12-step treatment programs for addictions. Initially conceived for alcohol (Alcoholics Anonymous, or AA) and later for narcotic addiction (NA), they now include not only Marijuana Anonymous and Cocaine Anonymous, but also Gamblers Anonymous, Overeaters Anonymous, Sexaholics Anonymous, Workaholics Anonymous, and even Debtors Anonymous (for people who have a compulsion to incur unsecured debts). In summary, the new behavioral definitions of addictions describe a behavioral pattern, not properties of drugs.
In many studies, therefore, rats are initially trained to press a lever for food reward, which they readily do. When they have learned to consistently press the lever for food, the food pellet is replaced with an intravenous injection of a drug. Thus, these experiments do not test whether rats are willing to initiate lever pressing for a drug, but rather whether the drug can maintain the lever pressing that had been acquired with food reward. The problem with this procedure is that a drug can maintain lever pressing in this procedure even if, 48 Chapter 5 inherently, it produces neither reward (positive reinforcement) nor physical dependence (negative reinforcement).