By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
In 1974 whilst I released my publication, organic Mechanism of Attachment, no longer many pages have been required to file at the attachment units of insect cuticles. As in such a lot fields of study, our wisdom in this particular topic has easily exploded. Dr. Stanislav N. Gorb now describes the current day point of our wisdom, to which he has in my view contributed quite a bit, and a study staff engaged on organic microtribology has progressively constructed, additionally. With sleek equipment of size it's attainable to go into the constitution – functionality courting even more deeply, even right down to a molecular point, which was once impossible and a part many years in the past. it's a renowned incontrovertible fact that, in biology, the extra subtle the measuring process, the larger the fulfillment of organic basic study, and its ensuing proof. Our wisdom is still at a definite point until eventually new equipment once again enable a ahead jump. organic wisdom develops within the type of a stepped curve instead of linear, as mirrored within the reports performed at the attachment units of insect cuticles.
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Extra info for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
Both frenulum and retinaculum are sexually dimorphic. The male retinaculum is usually called retinaculum subcostale, and the frenulum - frenulum simplex. The female retinaculum is called retinaculum subdorsale, whereas the frenulum - frenulum multiplicatum. An additional hooking structure in the forewing is called cteniculum, a group of setae on the posterior margin of the forewing. In the species of the Bombycoidea, the cteniculum is reduced (Obenberger, 1964). In the pyralid moth Pycnarmon caberalis, an unusual modification of the frenulum has been described.
Different lineages of cicadas have developed several principles to immobilise their coxae (Emeljanov, 1987). In species of Cicadellidae, it is a typical snap, containing outgrowths and depressions on the medial surfaces of the coxae (Fig. 11), whereas medial areas of coxae covered with fields of microtrichia, working as frictional surfaces, are present in cercopid cicadas (Chapter 5). In heteropteran hemielytra and coleopteran elytra, special snap-like devices prevent wing mobility in the resting position.
8 B). , 1998). Such a grating is particularly useful on a curved corneal surface, as it would increase the transmission of incident light through the cornea, compared with a smooth surface. A comparable anti-reflector is employed on solar absorbers. 0 are better protected from contamination than smooth surfaces. A similar self-cleaning function can also be suggested for ommatidia grating. Chapter 4 Principles of cuticular attachment in Arthropoda This chapter is a review, classifying attachment systems according to the attachment principle and their functional loads.