By Marian Klamer
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Kambera
46) above). If the reduplicated vowel is lengthened the reduplication has the more emphatic meaning 'continue to cry all the time'. Simple ta-'tata, as in (46), means 'shaking a lot', while 'ta:-'tata, as in (47) means something like 'keep on shaking heavily all the time'. Tatangar(u) means 'watch X for a bit', but 'ta:-'tangar(u) has a more emphatic meaning like 'watch X very intensively, study X'. 6. Reduplication 37 ma. 'ra:- 'ramba means 'all (of those) various kings'. 3 above). We can summarise the facts above as follows.
A minimal word constraint determines the shape of the lexical roots versus the functional items. We have seen that the foot is the category referred to in stress placement, a word game, names, reduplication and some phonotactic constraints. The prosodic word is the domain for a word game and reduplication. Clitics and affixes are similar in both being part of the prosodic word. Kambera has some very clear instances of phonological head-dependent asymmetries (Dresher—van der Hülst 1995). The vowel distribution in the prosodic word reflects the idea that a head is much less restricted than a dependent: all vowels may occur in the stressed syllable, only a subset occurs in the weak syllable of the root, while only default vowels occur in the other syllables.
2 that the Kambera root is prosodically characterised as a trochaic foot. Morphologically, it is the minimal non-dependent morphological unit. 'Minimal' means 'mono-morphemic' (in this respect roots contrasts with bases, cf. 2 below), while 'non-dependent' means that it is a free morpheme (in contrast to clitics and affixes). Morphologically complex words can be divided into affixes and roots. This is illustrated in (1), where the derivation pa. ng 'enlarge (X) for Y' can be divided into the root bokul 'be big', the causative prefix pa.