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Additional info for A beginner's guide to Forth
The history of AZM demonstrates something of the separate origins of GIS and spatial analysis tools noted above. Openshaw (1977) describes an automated zoning procedure (AZP) initially developed to run on an exemplar dataset comprising a limited set of regular cells, which could be aggregated into clusters according to a variety of objective functions. Although the method was of demonstrable practical utility, the absence of widely available topologically structured census or administrative area boundaries and the small problem size that could be handled by available computing power meant that the method was hardly applied until Openshaw and Rao (1995) returned to the problem, using 1991 census data and mid-1990s computing to demonstrate its practical large-scale application.
Testing the association between two spatial processes. Statistics and Decisions, Suppl. No. 2: 155–160. F. and Langford, M. (1997). Parametrization and visualization of the errors in areal interpolation. Geographical Analysis, 29: 314–328. Cressie, N. (1984). Towards resistant geostatistics. G. C. (1980). Urban residential ground cover using LANDSAT digital data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 46: 547–558. Gelman, A. N. (1999). All maps of parameter estimates are misleading. Statistics in Medicine, 18: 3221–3234.
The sampling variance of statistics are underestimated leading the analyst to reject the null hypothesis when no such conclusion is warranted at the chosen significance level. For the effects of spatial dependency on the analysis of contingency tables see, for example, Upton and Fingleton (1989) and Cerioli (1997). To make further progress in understanding the importance of spatial data properties and the complications they introduce we need to introduce models for spatial variation – or data generators for spatial variation.