By Panagiotis Artemiadis
Neuro-robotics is among the such a lot multidisciplinary fields of the final a long time, fusing info and data from neuroscience, engineering and laptop technological know-how. This publication makes a speciality of the consequences from the strategic alliance among Neuroscience and Robotics that aid the clinical group to higher comprehend the mind in addition to layout robot units and algorithms for interfacing people and robots. the 1st a part of the e-book introduces the assumption of neuro-robotics, via providing state of the art bio-inspired units. the second one a part of the publication makes a speciality of human-machine interfaces for functionality augmentation, that could visible as augmentation of talents of fit matters or suggestions in case of the mobility impaired. The 3rd a part of the booklet specializes in the inverse challenge, i.e. how we will be able to use robot units that bodily have interaction with the human physique, so as (a) to appreciate human motor keep an eye on and (b) to supply remedy to neurologically impaired humans or individuals with disabilities.
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Extra info for Neuro-Robotics: From Brain Machine Interfaces to Rehabilitation Robotics
Piezoelectric materials, it was discovered, would react to the application of a voltage differential by contracting; if immersed in a suitable medium, they would propagate a mechanical wave through it. The piezoelectric effect worked the other way around, too: when pressure was applied to a piezoelectric material, a voltage differential at the surface of the material would arise. These materials could then be used as transducers: acting both as emitters of mechanical waves, and as receivers. These two strands of research came together, according to Cobbold , around 1916 with the work of Paul Langevin, Robert W.
Research in this field was fueled, as it often happens, by a military application, namely the detection of submarines, which would later lead to the invention of the sonar; at the same time, the effects of ultrasound waves on biological tissue had been reported of by the above-mentioned authors. It was then clear that the emission/reflection of ultrasonic waves could in principle be used to inspect the internal structure of living beings. The history of ultrasound as a medical device stems from these findings and officially begins, at least according to Kane et al.
31], in 1942, when Karl Dussik  attempted a full-breadth ultrasonic scan of the cranium of a brain tumour patient. In that paper, along with a theoretical treatment of the subject, fundamental considerations are made about the possibility of visualising several tissues at the same time, exploiting the above-mentioned principle of wave reflection at the interfaces. 1 shows the apparatus Dussik built and used at that time. In 1948, the first Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine was held in Erlangen, Germany; in 1955 the terms A-mode and B-mode ultrasound scanning (in turn, amplitude- and brightness-modes) were used for the first time, namely by John J.