By Roger T Beckwith
This article bargains with numerous demanding difficulties in Jewish and early Christian notion and perform, in the normal components of the calendar and chronology. New difficulties are tackled, and outdated difficulties are reconsidered. the hot difficulties are intertestamental, and contain the Qumran calendar, the phases within the improvement of Judaism among the Testaments, and some of the chronologies utilized in early Judaism to degree earlier and destiny time. those chapters are generally of Jewish curiosity, even though the last-mentioned has a Christian bearing additionally, centering because it does on messianic expectation. The outdated difficulties all have a Christian bearing, and are biblical or patristic, notwithstanding illustrated the following via intertestamental facts. They contain the connection among the Sabbath and Sunday, the date of the crucifixion, the foundation of Easter and Whitsun, and the date of Christmas.
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Additional resources for Calendar and Chronology, Jewish and Christian: Biblical, Intertestamental and Patristic Studies (Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums)
So he commanded that they should apply themselves to work for six days but rest on the seventh and turn to the study of wisdom... Always follow God... Find, too, in the seventh day the pattern of thy duty to study wisdom, that day in which we are told that he surveyed what he had wrought... Let us not then neglect this great archetype" (De Decalogo 97-101, Colson's translation). The Sabbath is the day set apart for the pursuit of "philosophy" (De Opificio Mundi 128). "On this day we are commanded to abstain from all work, not because the Law inculcates slackness—on the contrary...
The New Testament stresses the fact that observance of the Law is summed up in love (Matt. 22:36-40; Rom. 13:8-10; Gal. 5:14), and that consequently the Christian is not bound to obey the Law literally except in so far as love of God and man binds him to. This "fulfilment" of the Law makes very far-reaching demands on the Christian— greater demands, in fact, than the old literal interpretation made (Matt. 5:17־ 48); but they are demands which do not enslave the Christian but set him free, since they are accompanied by justification from his sins and by the gift of G o d ' s Spirit (Rom.
We saw on pp. 20-22 above that the Old Testament authorises acts of worship and acts of necessity on the Sabbath. In paragraph (ii) we listed Jesus's acts of worship: these were basically uncontroversial. Controversy was provoked by the acts of necessity which he sanctioned, when he defended his disciples for satisfying their hunger in the cornfields (Mark 2:23-28), and when he told a cripple he was healing to take up his bed (John 5:8-12); but acts of necessity were not a new category, and the only difference was that Jesus was consistent about them and his opponents were not.