By Nader Hassanzadeh
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Extra resources for Bacteria phylogeny
Since the RNA in the RNA world is alive, it is assumed that RNA evolved into DNA through some sort of genetic takeover event. In other words, RNA enzymes made DNA, which replaced it in the genome. Proteins were added into the mix at some point. 1. Which came first? e. Watson/Crick). RNA has catalytic properties (the ribozymes of Cech and many others). e. ). g. ). The biosynthesis of histidine is uses ATP and PRPP. The biosynthesis of deoxynucleotides is from ribonucleotide diphosphates. The biosynthesis of dTMP is from dUMP (Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) into deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) in cells).
Systematics refers to the methods used to discover that history (in Greek systematos refers to a complex whole put together). Hoekstra-Chap13,2005 60 Traditional systematics vs. phylogenetic systematics 1. 2. Taxonomists tend to fall into two schools: Traditional systematics Phylogenetic or cladistic systematics Modern phylogenetic methods are making many changes in traditional views of the Tree of Life. Since the 1970s, "phylogenetic systematics" has been gradually replacing "traditional systematics“.
32 Pre-RNA World PNA/TNA /GNA PNA is more stable than RNA and appears to be more readily synthesised in prebiotic conditions, especially where the synthesis of ribose and adding phosphate groups are problematic. Threose nucleic acid (TNA World)has also been proposed as a starting point, as has Glycol nucleic acid (GNA World). ” DNA and RNA have a ribose sugar backbone, whereas PNA's backbone is composed of repeating N-(2aminoethyl)-glycine units linked by peptide bonds. Backbone of PNA contains no charged phosphate groups.