By Jerrold Brandell, Shoshana Ringel
Modern attachment conception either enriches our knowing of human improvement and informs scientific perform. It examines the relational bonds among teenagers and their caregivers and lines its origins to numerous clinical and social fields, so much particularly psychoanalysis, social paintings, behaviorism, ethology, evolutionary idea, and biology.The first section of this booklet examines attachment concept and its dating to different psychodynamic theories of improvement, from Sigmund Freud to Heinz Kohut, after which discusses the landmark contributions of John Bowlby, the "father" of contemporary attachment conception. The part concludes with an in depth precis of analysis on attachment, highlighting the paintings of Mary Ainsworth, Mary major, Allan Sroufe, and Peter Fonagy.The moment element specializes in scientific functions with baby, adolescent, and grownup purchaser populations. short vignettes and lengthier case illustrations reflect on a number of attachment problems and remedy methods, paying specified realization to scientific technique and strategy, approach dimensions, and transference and countertransference phenomena. situations are set in various therapy venues, corresponding to university and kin counseling companies, group psychological healthiness facilities, and personal perform, and contain consumers of numerous ethnocultural backgrounds and sexual orientations.Researchers have verified that kid's bonds with their caregivers are rooted in mental in addition to organic reasons and feature profound results on later character improvement. Attachment and Dynamic perform bargains a transparent and obtainable creation to attachment concept and study, linking the sector to a extensive variety of medical occasions and psychodynamic types.
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Extra info for Attachment and Dynamic Practice: An Integrative Guide for Social Workers and Other Clinicians
Because of his reliance on biology, evolutionary theory, and animal studies, and because he challenged the prevailing dynamic conceptions for the earliest relations between infants and mothers, Bowlby became alienated from the psychoanalytic establishment of his day. Bowlby’s early papers on such topics as separation, the nature of infantile attachment, and grief and mourning in childhood reveal his most important ideas. Having discussed the contributions and influence of his psychoanalytic predecessors and middle-tradition peers on the development of his thinking, we will now turn to the important influences on Bowlby from the areas of biology, evolutionary theory, cognitive theory, and ethology, as well as the contributions of Bowlby’s assistant, the social worker James Robertson, and the Uganda and Baltimore studies of Bowlby’s most famous collaborator, Mary Ainsworth, whose experimental methods enabled her to test Bowlby’s ideas empirically and opened the way for the rich body of attachment research that followed.
Rather, these children came to seek pain as a form of connection, the preferred connection, to others. Children, and later adults, seek from others the kinds of contact they experienced early on in their development. Just as ducklings be come imprinted onto and follow around whatever caretaking object shows up at the right time … so, in Fairbairn’s view, do children become powerfully attached to and build their subsequent emotional lives around the kinds of interactions they had with their early caregivers.
While Freud was also interested in Darwinian ideas, which differentiated between primitive and more evolved forms of life, he went in a very different direction. Freud developed a theory of the mind, using evolutionary principles to explain its internal structure, which he divided into three levels: the id, the ego, and the superego. Bowlby, however, was more interested in behavior related to the external environment, and how people adapt and survive in dangerous situations. From earliest human history, he noted, fear is a major component of anxiety.