By Riad A. Attar
This research contributes to the talk on even if safety spending encourages or hinders monetary progress. The impression of politics on fiscal development in constructing societies is classed, with a spotlight at the heart East. The learn is the 1st so as to add clash variables to the creation functionality defense-growth version and try them empirically throughout international locations and areas, and supply powerful empirical facts at the differential results of interstate and intrastate conflicts on fiscal progress. The examine presents compelling empirical facts and instructions to coverage selection makers on the way to allocate the assets in their states and undertake regulations that advertise political fiscal improvement. The learn urges 3rd international leaders to enhance degrees of freedom, democracy, and openness in their political structures as the effects make sure that political components are not less than as very important as monetary components in selling financial development. moreover, the consequences attest that the reallocation of assets from army to the civilian region is the sine qua non to enhance the functionality of constructing international locations' economies.
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This monograph examines the position of civil society teams in peace development in 3 clash areas in India's Northeast--Assam, Naga Hills/Nagaland, and Mizo Hills/Mizoram. those political conflicts are complicated with each one clash representing a cacophony of competing, frequently zero-sum calls for. In investigating the position of civil society teams, the examine distinguishes among authentic (between the govt. of India and sure rebel enterprises) and unofficial peace procedures on the neighborhood point that makes coexistence of various groups attainable regardless of the ongoing violence.
We're in a country of large international unrest with wars, acts of terrorism, genocide, epidemics and untold traditional failures. at times scholars are in danger because of protection issues inside of their colleges, from extremist perspectives that discriminate opposed to acquiring schooling, from societal matters that elevate anxiousness and melancholy, or even in particular circumstances from corruption in executive that hinder scholars from gaining access to education.
All international locations, areas and associations are eventually equipped on a level of consensus, on a collective dedication to an idea, trust or worth procedure. This consensus is consistently rephrased and reinvented via a story of harmony and challenged by way of expressions of discontent and discord. The background of the Low nations is characterized by means of either a striving for consensus and eruptions of discord, either internally and from exterior demanding situations.
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Additional resources for Arms and Conflict in the Middle East (Contributions to Conflict Management Peace Economics and Development)
2, where the gains to be made by the Israelis increase as we move eastward along the horizontal dimension and the gains to be made by the PNA, Egypt, and Jordan increase as we move northward along the vertical dimension. That is, any bargain in this space will provide utility, an improvement over the status quo, to Israel the PNA, Egypt, and Jordan (Morrow, 1994, pp. 112–115; Osborne, 2004, pp. 465–477; Russett, Starr, & Kinsella, 2006, pp. 126–127). 38 Fig. 2. RIAD A. ATTAR Nash Bargaining Solution of Israel versus Egypt, Jordan, and the PNA.
3. Shortly after the news of Prophet Muhammad’s death, many Arab tribes renounced their allegiance to Islam in favor of new, local leaders. This was less a religious choice than a political and economic one, since the tribes used this as an excuse to govern themselves and stop paying the zaka˜t, or alms tax. Though most Arab tribes did not challenge the prophecy of Muhammad, others apostatized and returned to their pre-Islamic religion and traditions, classiﬁed by Muslims as idolatry. The tribes claimed that they had submitted to Prophet Muhammad and that with the Prophet’s death, they were again free.
According to Cleveland (2000, pp. 51–52), the once-prevalent idea that the Ottoman Empire entered into a period of precipitous decline following the reign of Su¨leman al-Kanuni (‘‘the law giver,’’ better known in the West as ‘‘the Magniﬁcent’’) is no longer accepted. Indeed, some historians now question whether the term ‘‘decline’’ is an accurate description of the reason that the Ottoman Empire lost its dominant position. Cleveland (2000, p. ’’ The penetration of the Europeanmanufactured goods into the empire and the eventual domination of Ottoman commerce by Europeans and their prote´ge´s were facilitated by a series of commercial treaties, known as ‘‘the capitulations,’’ that the Ottoman sultans signed with the Christian states of Europe.