By Russell L. Andersson
This journey de strength in experimental robotics paves the way in which towards figuring out dynamic environments in imaginative and prescient and robotics. It describes the 1st robotic capable of play, or even beat, human ping-pong gamers. developing a computer to play ping-pong was once proposed years in the past as a very tough challenge requiring speedy, exact sensing and actuation, and the intelligence to play the sport. The examine stated the following begun as a sequence of experiments in construction a real real-time imaginative and prescient approach. The ping-pong computer contains sensor and processing recommendations in addition to the innovations had to intelligently plan the robot's reaction within the fraction of a moment to be had. it flourishes on a continuing circulate of recent information. Subjectively comparing and bettering its movement plan because the info arrives, it presages destiny robotic platforms with many joints and sensors that needs to do a similar, it doesn't matter what the duty. Contents: advent. robotic Ping-Pong. method layout. Real-Time imaginative and prescient method robotic Controller. specialist Controller Preliminaries. specialist Controller. robotic Ping-Pong software. end. Russell L. Andersson is Member of Technical employees, Robotics structures examine division, AT&T Bell Laboratories. A robotic Ping-Pong participant is integrated within the synthetic Intelligence sequence, edited by way of Patrick Winston and Michael Brady.
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Extra info for A Robot Ping-Pong Player: Experiments in Real-Time Intelligent Control
The rtd program is able to read the log files produced by the 680xO processors and render them to a human readable form. It reads the log entry description files from the implementors to obtain the contents of each entry. It corrects for the data size and byte ordering differences between the processor types. The user may request log entries from any and all of the implementors to be displayed; rtd will produce them in their order of logging, using the timestamp written by printlog. Rtd can also produce a plot from two specified values in a log entry.
However, accuracy depends on a good paddle orientation estimate for the initial correction process. We perform the planning process twice so that the orientation estimate 0 during the second iteration (the computed orientation during the first iteration) is quite accurate. The moment of impact may be modeled in the (moving) coordinate system of the paddle, where the impact may be resolved into normal and tangential components. The bounce off the paddle resembles the bounce on the flat tabletop, but we assume (with justification) the paddle is very sticky: the ball always rolls, never slides.
The moment generator chips reside on a Multi-Bus® (InteO board along with the preprocessor. Figure 1 0 shows a block diagram of the moment generator board, including the preprocessor. A separate board digitizes (but does not store) the analog camera data, extracts the camera timing, and provides an overlay plane which overlays the image being processed with computer-generated graphics. The intensity map converts intensity values to the desired precision and alignment. The map may perform binary thresholding, intensity windowing, nonlinear response correction, or any combination of the above.