By J. F. Scott
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Extra resources for A History of Mathematics: From Antiquity to the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century
This growth required that certain meanings and 'n:- 2. Bynum, Science and the Practice of Medicine, xi. 3. R. Porter, Greatest Benefit, 6. 4. , Foucault, Birth of the Clinic, xii-xiv, 198 (quote); and R. Porter, Greatest Benefit, 7· 51 values be not simply taken fron1 the outside, but either newly created or at least significantly transformed. ' Given the remarkable impact of nineteenth-century medicine, some questions seem inevitable: What do we understand by "scientific medicine""? Can it be strictly separated from the art of Inedicine, as some nineteenth-century protagouists claimed?
Ij\"S1ion because lt allowed doctors to emphasize particular demands and valin political and public spheres. arlU between Henle and Carl Pfeufer in Heidelberg. 44 On the other hand, Duchesneau, "Vitalism and Anti-Vitalism," 250-51. See also Lohff, 'Johannes MulIers Re.... ,,""",'".. Rheinb~rger, "Zum_ Organismusbild der Physiologie"; and Lenoir, Strategy of Life, chap. 3. Lesch, SCIence and Medicine. Du Bois-Reymond, Untersuchungen, 1, and 'Del' physiologische Unterricht"· Helmholtz ' . "1jp'''d,'';Ciel ..
On alternative medicine see Bynum and Porter, Medical Fringe and Medical Orthodoxy,' Cootef, Studies in the History of Alternative Medicine; andJutte, Geschichte der AIUrnativen Medizin. On Germany after 1870 see Dinges, Medizinkritische Bewegungen. 54. McKeown, Role of Medicine; Illich, Limits to Medicine. " 69 medicine and the human sciences have achieved since the nineteenth cenThe scientific turn of medicine, its substitution of a patient-centered discourse with objectifiable sigus, its arbitrary establishment of normality and averages, and its definitional power in terms of health and illness, was given a central role in the project of a modern "disenchantment of the world," to use Weber's famous phrase.