By Carolyn Mackay
The Totonac-Tepehua language kinfolk, although typologically just like another Mesoamerican languages, has no longer but been tested to be on the topic of the other language kin. Misantla Totonac is the southernmost number of Totonac and is spoken within the sector among Xalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico and Misantla, Veracruz. In 1974, a newly paved street attached Xalapa and Misantla bringing a comparatively remoted region into touch with mainstream Mexican language and tradition. hence, Misantla Totonac isn't any longer got as a primary language through the neighborhood little ones and is speedily being changed via Spanish. A GRAMMAR OF MISANTLA TOTONAC provides the phonological constitution of the language and the most efficient morphological strategies. It describes inflection and derivation of all significant be aware sessions (verbs, nominals, and statives) intimately. It introduces grammatical contract and be aware order phenomena, and offers the main salient and critical facets of Misantla Totonac grammar. even if numerous Totonac-Tepehua grammars exist in Spanish, this is often the single released grammar of the Totonac-Tepehua language relatives at the moment to be had in English. Winner of the yearly Society for the research of Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA) publication Award, this marks the 3rd quantity to be released within the sequence. "The fabric awarded here's key to any destiny paintings in reconstructing the proto-language. . . .[It] is an important contribution to either common linguistics in addition to to Mesoamerican stories. -James Watters, summer season Institute of Linguistics
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Extra info for A grammar of Misantla Totonac
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Have you a clerk? Has the policeman a bicycle? Has the student a dictionary? Have you a driver? Has he a cook? Has the doctor a handphone? Have the farmer and the tailor bicycles? Have you a servant? Has she a pan? Has the bicycle a lamp? Have you a ruler? Has she money? Have you a newspaper? Has she an umbrella? Have they a motorcar? Now check your answers with the correct translation below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ~9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Awak adakah kerani? Polis adakah basikal?
34 12. 13. 14. 15. Ahmad ada se Mereka ada dua Kami ada se Mutu ada sepuluh pen. motokar. tukang masdk: kambing. Translate the following sentences into Bahasa Melayu. After you have written out all the sentences, check with the correct translation after this exercise: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. She has three pineapples. You have two pencils. They have twenty goats. A teacher has forty pupils. He has two rulers only. I have no pen, but I have two pencils. We have no money, but we have a car.
Itujamkah? Bukan, itu bukanjam. Ituapa? Itu berus. ftuapa? Itugambar. ftu apa? flu sampul sural. Ini bungakah? fa, ini bunga. Ini lampukah? Bukan, ini bukan lampu, ini bakul. 9 Malayfor Everyone Exercise You will fmd two columns of Bahasa Melayu words in the table below. Take words from Colwnn 1 and Column 2 and form sentences with them. Column 1 Column 2 bunga. disket. gambar. kamus. kerusi. /ampu. baku/. surat. pisau. jam. /oceng. majalah. tingkap. kati/. pintu. lni Itu Exercise Translate the following sentences into Bahasa Melayu.